Photovoltaic systems for public and agricultural use are in the form of independent power plants from the national electricity grid or systems connected to the national grid with a fixed or mobile installation structure in small units, these systems are low power to supply the electrical energy needed by small calculators up to Large power plant systems have been produced. Regarding mobile systems, it should be noted that its advantage is the ability to track the sun and increase the electrical energy resulting from the sun’s radiation during the day.

    Applications and how to use photovoltaic systems

    Despite this, due to the increased probability of failure in the mechanical system, the need for electrical energy to move the structure is not recommended in small and scattered applications. Only a few solar power plants (photovoltaic) in the world have used this type of structure.

    This is while nearly 40 photovoltaic power plants are installed and operating in the world, most of them are located in European countries that do not have high potential in terms of radiation intensity.

    Design methods of solar power systems

    1- method connected to the national electricity network (On Grid/Grid Connected)

    In this method, the electrical energy obtained from the photovoltaic system or solar panel using electrical equipment that converts direct current to alternating current, such as inverters connected to the grid, etc., while changing the shape and matching the voltage level and frequency of the electrical energy obtained from the photovoltaic system, with the voltage level characteristics, the difference Phase, frequency, etc. are injected into the national electricity network. By using photovoltaic power plants connected to the national grid (concentrated or decentralized) (while strengthening the current energy in the distribution network due to the injection of voltage and current) the voltage drop of the distribution network has been prevented and as a result the pressure on the power plants during the day It prevents This means that every subscriber of the national electricity network, by installing a system connected to the network, can act as a small distributed generator (DG) in the form of a small power plant. In this method, in addition to providing part of the electrical energy needed by the consumer, excess electrical energy is injected into the national electricity grid.

    Also, this type of solar panel system is used in government incentive plans to improve the renewable energy market in the form of guaranteed purchase contracts. For this purpose, all the power produced by the subscribers is injected into the national network and the amount of energy production is accurately calculated by two-way meters and paid to the subscriber according to the guaranteed purchase tariff table.

    More transparently, this plan is implemented in such a way that each of the subscribers of their regional electricity distribution office, as electricity buyers, pays an amount between 90 and 110 tomans for each kilowatt hour of electricity consumed, and the electricity produced by their solar. panel They sell it to the same company for 600 to 800 dinar!

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    2-Off Grid/Grid Disconnected method

    In this method, as in the previous method, the electrical energy obtained from the photovoltaic system is converted to alternating current using electrical equipment, but it is not injected into the national grid! Rather, it is consumed by the producer himself. In fact, the production and consumption system is sometimes performed simultaneously in a time cycle.

    With this method, depending on the need of the amount of consumption during a day and night, the producer must provide the energy he needs during the day and store it for consumption during the night. In order to meet the energy consumption during the day.

    pas solar Converters or inverters of this group are known as off-grade inverters and are often equipped with battery chargers. But otherwise you should use a controller and battery charger in your circuit.

    The main parts of a system apart from the network include:

    1- Solar array section or solar panel

    2- Automatic controller and charger

    3- direct to alternating converter or inverter with suitable voltage range for consumers

    4- Power storage or backup batteries



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